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Nature in Shetland

winner of a Shetland Environment Award 2004


  • Shetland Entomological Group



    • None of these lists can be reproduced without written permission from SEG or SBRC.


    • lists on this page compiled by Mike Pennington and Paul Harvey with assistance as noted under each group


    • Few of the following orders have been studied and the lists are probably incomplete. With the exception of the Hemiptera, they are all relatively small groups and generally have few species found in Shetland.


    • Thysanura

    • bristletails


    • An order of flightless insects. No studies have been carried out but there are only a few species that could occur.


    • Machilidae

    • Petrobius brevistylis Carpenter /maritimus (Leach)  R: common or abundant throughout the islands.

    • Lepismatidae

    • Lepisma saccharina Silverfish  RS: nowadays, scarce in suitable buildings on Mainland, Foula and Unst at least.





    • springtails

    • with thanks to David Scott-Langley 


    • An order of flightless insects which have received some study (see

  • Hypogastruridae

  • Ceratophysella denticulata

  • C. granulata (note - no confirmed records for Britain)

  • Hypogastrura viatica

  • Xenylla humicola

  • Neanuridae

  • Neonura muscorum

  • Amurida granaria

  • A. maritima

  • A. tullbergi

  • Onychiurinae

  • Protophorura armata

  • P. aurantiaca

  • P. debilis

  • Entomobryidae

  • Entomobrya albocincta

  • E. nicoleti

  • Lepidocyrtus cyaneus

  • L. lignorum

  • L. lanuginosus

  • Pseudosinella alba

  • Orchesella cincta

  • Isotomidae

  • Folsonia fimetaria

  • F. quadrioculata

  • Isotoma antennalis

  • I. viridis

  • Isotomurus fucicolus

  • I. maculatus

  • I. palustris

  • I. prasinus

  • Pseudisotoma sensibilis

  • Tetracanthella wahlgreni

  • Tomoceridae

  • Tomocerus minor

  • T. vulgaris

  • Megalothorax minimus

  • Stenacidia violacea

  • Sminthurus aquaticus

  • S. viridis




    • mayflies

    • with thanks to Graeme Callender for information


    • No detailed studies have been carried out on this group. The following species of mayflies have been recorded but there is not enough data to assess status. Some records are from King (1890) and Jones & Mortimer (1974).


    • Baetidae

    • Chloëon simile  R

    • Centropilium luteolum  R

    • Baetis tenax  R

    • Baetis rhodani (Pictet)  R: Foula.

    • Caenidae

    • Caenis rivulorum  R: Foula.

    • Siphlonuridae

    • Ameletus inopinatus  R: recently found in north Mainland.




    • Plecoptera

    • stoneflies


    • No detailed studies have been carried out on this group. The following species of stoneflies were recorded by King (1890). Other species have undoubtedly gone un-recorded.


    • Leuctridae

    • Leuctra fusciventris Ste.  R: central Mainland and Unst in 19th century.

    • Chloroperlidae

    • Chloroperla tripunctana Scop.  R: central Mainland and Unst in 19th century.



    • Orthoptera

    • grasshoppers and crickets


    • Only one species of has been recorded.


    • Acrididae

    • Locusta migratoria Migratory Locust  V: at least two records - Lochend, north Mainland, in autumn 1939 and another from Unst with no date.




    • DERMAptera

    • earwigs


    • Only one species has been recorded.


    • Forficulidae

    • Forficula auricularia Linn. Common Earwig  R: abundant throughout the islands. Mainly July-September.





    • cockroaches


    • The usual domestic pest species of cockroaches, such as the Common Cockroach Blatta orientalis Linn., have been recorded occasionally. There are no native species.





    • booklice and barklice


    • No detailed studies have been carried out on this group. The following species of booklice or dustlice were recorded by King (1890) but no doubt other species have gone un-recorded.

    • Pscodidae

    • Amphigerontia bifasciata (Latr.)

    • Mesopsocidae

    • Elipsocus westwoodii McLach.

    • Mesopsocus unipunctanus (Müll.)

    • Trogiidae

    • Trogium pulsatoria (Linn.)




    • Phthiraptera

    • biting lice

    • with thanks to Jim Fowler for information


    • Biting lice, formerly known as Mallophaga, are usually found on birds, and are often highly host-specific.

    • The following list is largely derived from studies on petrels, but no doubt other species have gone unrecorded.


    • Menoponidae

    • Austromenopon pelagicum (Timmermann)  Host: Storm Petrel.

    • Philopteridae

    • Brueelia uncinosa (Burmeister)  Host: Hooded Crow

    • Halipeurus diversus (Kellogg)  Host: Manx Shearwater

    • Halipeurus pelagicus (Denny)  Host: Leach’s and Storm Petrels

    • Perineus nigrolimbatus (Giebel)  Host: Fulmar

    • Philoceanus robertsi (Clay)  Host: Storm Petrel

    • Saemundssonia grylle (Fabr.)  Host: Black Guillemot

    • Saemundssonia melanocephalus (Burmeister)  Host: terns

    • Saemundssonia thalassidromae (Denny)  Host: Storm Petrel

    • Seamundssonia occidentalis (Kellogg)  Host: Fulmar

    • Trabeculus aviator (Evans)  Host: Manx Shearwater





    • sucking lice


    • No detailed studies have been carried out on this group, also known as Anopleura.

    • The following species of sucking lice, which are usually parasites of mammals, have been recorded and no doubt other species have gone unrecorded.


    • Haematopinidae

    • Haematopinus vituli Linn.

    • Haematopinus ventricosus Denny

    • Pediculidae

    • Pediculus humanus Human Louse

    • Echinophthiriidae

    • Echinophthirius phocae Lucas



      true bugs
      with thanks to Thomas Huxley  for information
      Only the aquatic Heteroptera have been researched, and there is not enough data to assess status. A number of terrestrial species, such as the Heteropteran shieldbugs and ground bugs and Homopteran froghoppers and aphids, also occur, but they have not been studied. Many other species undoubtedly occur.
      Acanthosomatidae (shieldbugs)
      Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale (Linn.) Hawthorn Shieldbug U: several in summer 1992, occasional others, all believed to be imported but immigration not impossible.
      Pentatomidae (shieldbugs)
      Piezodorus lituratus Gorse Shieldbug U: one record on Fair Isle in 1995.
      Miridae (mirid bugs or capsids)
      Calocoris norvegicus  R: Fair Isle.
      Saldo morio  R: Fair Isle.
      Corixidae (waterboatmen)
      Arctocorisa carinata  R: Mainland.
      Arctocorisa germari  R: Mainland.
      Callicorixa wollastoni  R: Mainland.
      Corixa iberica  R: Fair Isle, Foula and Unst.
      Corixa panzeri  R: north Mainland.
      Corixa punctata Illiger  R: south Mainland.
      Glaencorisa propinqua  R: Mainland.
      Hesperocorixa castanea  R: Mainland.
      Sigara distincta   R: Mainland.
      Sigara dorsalis  (Leach)  R: Mainland.
      Sigara nigrolineata  R: Mainland.
      Sigara scottii  R: Mainland.
      Sigara striata R: Mainland.
      Gerridae (pondskaters)
      Gerris lateralis  R: Unst at least. 
      Veliidae (water crickets)
      Velia caprai Tamanini Common Water Cricket  R: Mainland.
      Velia saulii  R: Fair Isle.
      Aphrophoridae (froghoppers)
      Neotholaenus lineatus  R: at least Fair Isle.
      Streptanus sordidus  R: Fair Isle.




    • thrips


    • Thrips, or thunderflies, certainly occur but have not been studied.




    • Siphonaptera

    • fleas


    • The following list of fleas, compiled by R. S. George, was published in Berry & Johnston (1980).


    • Pulicidae

    • Pulex irritans Linn. Human Flea

    • Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) Rabbit Flea

    • Hystrichopysillidae

    • Typhloceras poppei Wagner

    • Ctenophthalmus nobilis vulgaris Smit

    • Leptopysillidae

    • Leptopsylla segnis (Schonherr)

    • Ceratophyllidae

    • Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae (Dale)

    • Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc)

    • Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank)

    • Ceratophyllus fringillae (Walker)

    • Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis Rothschild

    • Ceratophyllus garei Rothschild

    • Ceratophyllus borealis Rothschild



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